Verbs and Present Continuous Tense


In this lesson we will master present continuous tense in Turkish language. This tense can be used to describe something happening right now, some thing will happen in future or, in some cases, to express daily habits. So, once you master present continuous tense, you will be able to express yourself in many cases. Finally, in this lesson we will also learn some new verbs and words.


Ceren: Selam Leyla! Ne yapıyorsun?

— Hi Leyla. What do you do?

Leyla: Selam Ceren! Oturuyorum. Çay içiyorum.

— Hi Ceren. I am sitting and drinking tea.

Ceren: Ya, evet. Görüyorum.

— Yeah, I see that.

Leyla: Şaka yapıyorum. Sen ne içiyorsun?

— I am kidding. What would you like to drink?

Ceren: Acelem var. Üzgünüm. İşe gidiyorum.

— I am in hurry. I am sorry. I am going to job.

Leyla: Anlıyorum. Akşam görüşüyor muyuz?

— I understand. Are we on for the evening?

Ceren: Evet. İnşallah, akşam geliyorum.

— Yes. Inshallah, I will come this evening.


Çay – Tea

Şaka – Joke

Acele – Hurry

İş – Job

Akşam – Evening


As we have stressed before Turkish language has a lot of suffixes. This is why sometimes those words look ridiculously long for a learner. We will again use a suffix to make sentences with present continuous tense. So, let’s have a look at the most common Turkish verbs and their conjugation.


Here is an example: gelmek.
Gelmek means to come in infinitive form.
Gel is the root and -mek is a suffix of infinitive.

Here how we are making verbs in continuous tense.

Verb root + tense suffix + personal ending
i.e: gel+iyor+um = Geliyorum (I am coming)

Tense suffix for the present continuous tense is the one among these: -(ı, i, u or ü)yor. The first letters vary according to the rule of vowel harmony.

Personal endings are exactly same suffix with we what we have covered in the lesson Making Simple Sentences with verb -to be. If you do not remember them, please go back and check those personal endings.

and the list below includes some verb roots in their infinitive form.

Sevmek – To like

İstemek – To want

Gelmek – To come

Gitmek – To go

İçmek – To drink

Yemek – To eat

Bilmek – To know

Konuşmak – To speak

Görmek – To see

Yapmak – To do

Oturmak – To sit

Okumak – To read, to study

Yazmak – To write

Çalışmak – To work, to study

Anlamak – To understand

Bakmak – To look

Tanışmak – To meet for the first time

Buluşmak – To meet


Conjugations of the verbs above in present continuous tense

Ben

(Ben) seviyorum. – I like.
istiyorum. – I want.
geliyorum. – I am coming.
gidiyorum. – I am going.
içiyorum. – I am drinking.
yiyorum. – I am eating.
biliyorum. – I know.
konuşuyorum. – I speak.
görüyorum. – I see.
yapıyorum. – I am doing.
oturuyorum. – I am sitting.
okuyorum. – I am reading.
yazıyorum. – I am writing.
çalışıyorum. – I am working.
anlıyorum. – I understand.
bakıyorum. – I am looking.
tanışıyorum. – I am meeting (for the first time).
buluşuyorum. – I am meeting (with someone)

Sen

(Sen) seviyorsun. – You like.
istiyorsun. – You want.
geliyorsun. – You are coming.
gidiyorsun. – You are going.
içiyorsun. – You are drinking.
yiyorsun. – You are eating.
biliyorsun. – You know.
konuşuyorsun. – You speak.
görüyorsun. – You see.
yapıyorsun. – You are doing.
oturuyorsun. – You are sitting.
okuyorsun. – You are reading.
yazıyorsun. – You are writing.
çalışıyorsun. – You are working.
anlıyorsun. – You understand.
bakıyorsun. – You are looking.
tanışıyorsun. – You are meeting (for the first time).
buluşuyorsun. – You are meeting (with someone)

O

(O) seviyor. – He/She/It likes.
istiyor. – He/She/It wants.
geliyor. – He/She/It is coming.
gidiyor. – He/She/It is going.
içiyor. – He/She/It is drinking.
yiyor. – He/She/It is eating.
biliyor. – He/She/It knows.
konuşuyor. – He/She/It speaks.
görüyor. – He/She/It sees.
yapıyor. – He/She/It is doing.
oturuyor. – He/She/It is sitting.
okuyor. – He/She/It is reading.
yazıyor. – He/She/It is writing.
çalışıyor. – He/She/It is working.
anlıyor. – He/She/It understands.
bakıyor. – He/She/It is looking.
tanışıyor. – He/She/It is meeting (for the first time).
buluşuyor. – He/She/It is meeting (with someone)

Biz

(Biz) seviyoruz. – We like.
istiyoruz. – We want.
geliyoruz. – We are coming.
gidiyoruz. – We are going.
içiyoruz. – We are drinking.
yiyoruz. – We are eating.
biliyoruz. – We know.
konuşuyoruz. – We speak.
görüyoruz. – We see.
yapıyoruz. – We are doing.
oturuyoruz. – We are sitting.
okuyoruz. – We are reading.
yazıyoruz. – We are writing.
çalışıyoruz. – We are working.
anlıyoruz. – We understand.
bakıyoruz. – We are looking.
tanışıyoruz. – We are meeting (for the first time).
buluşuyoruz. – We are meeting (with someone)

Siz

(Siz) seviyorsunuz. – You like.
istiyorsunuz. – You want.
geliyorsunuz. – You are coming.
gidiyorsunuz. – You are going.
içiyorsunuz. – You are drinking.
yiyorsunuz. – You are eating.
biliyorsunuz. – You know.
konuşuyorsunuz. – You speak.
görüyorsunuz. – You see.
yapıyorsunuz. – You are doing.
oturuyorsunuz. – You are sitting.
okuyorsunuz. – You are reading.
yazıyorsunuz. – You are writing.
çalışıyorsunuz. – You are working.
anlıyorsunuz. – You understand.
bakıyorsunuz. – You are looking.
tanışıyorsunuz. – You are meeting (for the first time).
buluşuyorsunuz. – You are meeting (with someone)

Onlar

(Onlar) seviyor(lar). – They like.
istiyor(lar). – They want.
geliyor(lar). – They are coming.
gidiyor(lar). – They are going.
içiyor(lar). – They are drinking.
yiyor(lar). – They are eating.
biliyor(lar). – They know.
konuşuyor(lar). – They speak.
görüyor(lar). – They see.
yapıyor(lar). – They are doing.
oturuyor(lar). – They are sitting.
okuyor(lar). – They are reading.
yazıyor(lar). – They are writing.
çalışıyor(lar). – They are working.
anlıyor(lar). – They understand.
bakıyor(lar). – They are looking.
tanışıyor(lar). – They are meeting (for the first time).
buluşuyor(lar). – They are meeting (with someone)


Making negatives of present continuous tense is very simple. We will add negative suffix to our formula.

Verb root + negative suffix + tense suffix + personal ending
i.e: gel+mi+yorum. (I am not coming)

Negative suffix for the present continuous tense is the one among these: m(ı, i, u or ü). These letters vary according to the rule of vowel harmony.

Some more examples:

 Anlamıyorsun – You are not understanding.
 Okumuyoruz. – We do not read.
 Görmüyor. – She does not see.


Verbs in the present continuous tense and their conjugation


Use of present continuous tense in Turkish language:

    • to describe an action that is happening now.

i.e: Çay içiyorum. (I am drinking tea)

    • to express something planned in future

ie: Yarın İstanbul’a gidiyorum. (I am going to İstanbul tomorrow)

    • to describe habitual things that we do every day

i.e: Her akşam kebap yiyorum. (I eat kebab every evening)


Words you have learnt so far…

#


A

Arap – Arab

Avukat – Lawyer

Asker – Soldier

Alman – German

Amerikalı – American

Az – Few

Anne – Mother

Anneanne – Maternal Grandmother

Amca – Maternal Uncle

B

Büyük – Big

Burada – Here

Baba – Father

Babaanne – Paternal Grandmother

C

Ç

Çirkin – Ugly

Çok – Very/Many

Çocuk – Child

D

Doktor – Doctor

Dede – Grandfather

Dayı – Maternal Uncle

E

Evet – Yes

Erkek – Male

Erkek kardeş – Brother

F

Fransız – French

G

Gazeteci – Journalist
Genç – Young
Güzel – Beautiful

H

Hızlı – Fast

Hala – Paternal aunt

Harika – Great

Hayır – No

I

İ

İtalyan – Italian
İş adamı – Businessman
İspanyol – Spanish
İngiliz – English
İyi – Good

J

K

Küçük – Small

Kötü – Bad

Keyifli – In a good mood

Keyifsiz – Gloomy

Kızgın – Mad

Kardeş – Sibling

Kız – Girl / Daughter

Kız kardeş – Sister

L

M

Memur – Public Officer

Mühendis – Engineer

Mutlu – Happy

Mutsuz – Sad

Müsait – Free/Avaliable

N


Neşeli – Cheerful

O


Oğul – Son

Ö

Öğretmen – Teacher
Öğrenci – Student

P

Polis – Policeman

R

Rus – Russian

S

Suriyeli – Syrian
Sanatçı – Artist
Sıcak – Hot
Soğuk – Cold

 

Ş


Şaşkın – Surprised

T

Türk – Turkish

Teyze – Maternal aunt

U


Uykulu – Sleepy

Ü

V

Y

Yeni – New

Yavaş – Slow

Yaşlı – Old

Yakışıklı – Handsome

Yorgun – Tired

Yardım – Help

Z

Making Simple Sentences with verb -to be


In this lesson we will make some simple sentences by using personal pronouns and their suffixes. Also, we will master how to ask these sentences to someone. Before we start, let’s recall personal pronouns that we have covered in the Lesson #1 – Greetings, Daily Phrases and Personal Pronouns.


Personal Pronouns

Ben – I

Sen – You

O – He/She/It

Biz – We

Siz – You (plural or formal)

Onlar – They


The verb “to be” (am, is, are) exists as a suffixes in the Turkish language. Meaning that we will add some syllables to the end of nouns and adjectives to make verbs. These suffixes vary according to the rule of Vowel Harmony that we will touch upon later.

Before this gets boring, let’s see those suffixes and how we use them!


Ben – I

Suffix: -ım, -im, -üm or um
(only the one that fits according to the Vowel Harmony you will learn later)

Examples:

Ben avukatım. – I am a lawyer

Ben öğretmenim. – I am a teacher.

Ben Türk’üm. – I am Turkish.

Ben doktorum. – I am a doctor.


Sen – You

Suffix: -sin, -sın, -sün or sun
(only the one that fits according to the Vowel Harmony you will learn later)

Examples:

Sen avukatsın. – You are a lawyer.

Sen öğretmensin. – You are a teacher.

Sen Türk’sün. – You are Turkish.

Sen doktorsun. – You are a doctor.


O – He/She/It

Suffix: -no suffix or -dir, -dır, -dur, -dür
(Most of the times suffixes are committed for “O” [third person singular pronoun] however, sometimes these four of which fits according to the Vowel Harmony you will learn later is used)

Examples:

O avukat. – He/She is a lawyer

O öğretmen. – He/She is a teacher.

O Türk. – He/She is Turkish.

O doktor. – He/She doctor.


Biz – We

Suffix: -ız, -iz, -uz or üz
(only the one that fits according to the Vowel Harmony you will learn later)

Examples:

Biz avukatız. – We are lawyers.

Biz öğretmeniz. – We are teachers.

Biz Türk’üz. – We are Turkish.

Biz doktorsuz. – We are doctors.


Siz – You (Plural)

Suffix: -sınız, -siniz, -sunuz or sünüz
(only the one that fits according to the Vowel Harmony you will learn later)

Examples:

Siz avukatsınız. – You are lawyers.

Siz öğretmensiniz. – You are teachers.

Siz Türk’sünüz. – You are Turkish.

Siz doktorsunuz. – You are doctors.


Onlar – They

Suffix: -no suffix or -dirler, -dırlar, -durlar, -dürler
(Most of the times suffixes are committed for “Onlar” [third person plural pronoun] however, sometimes these four of which fits according to the Vowel Harmony you will learn later is used)

Examples:

Onlar avukat. – They are lawyers.

Onlar öğretmen. – They are teachers.

Onlar Türk. – They are Turkish.

Onlar doktor. – They are doctors.

Değil

“Değil” is the negative from of verb to be in Turkish. Personal suffixes that we discussed above is added to “değil” when we make negative sentences.

Examples:

Ben avukat değilim. – I am not a lawyer.

Sen öğretmen değilsin. – You are not a teacher.

Onlar Türk değil. – They are not Turkish.

Biz doktor değiliz. – We are not doctors.


Let's have a review of making sentences with personal pronoun suffixes!

Hans: Selam! Ben mühendis. Ya siz?
Mehmet: Selam! Ben asker.
Hans: Çok güzel. Biz Alman'.
Mehmet: Aaa! Siz Türk değil.
Ayşe: Hans mühendis. O Alman.
Mehmet: Teşekkür ederim, Ayşe. Sen gazeteci.


Now, you know how to make some simple sentences in Turkish. Here are the most commonly used adjectives to enrich your sentences.

Adjectives and Adverbs

Büyük – Big

Küçük – Small

Genç – Young

Yaşlı – Old

Yeni – New

Güzel – Beatiful

Yakışıklı – Handsome

Çirkin – Ugly

İyi – Good

Kötü – Bad

Çok – Very

Az – Few/Little

Hızlı – Fast

Yavaş – Slow

Sıcak – Hot

Soğuk – Cold

Sample Sentences

Çok güzelsin. – You are very beautiful.

Öğretmen gençtir. – Teacher is young.

Araba hızlıdır. – Car is fast.

O çok küçük. – He/she/it is very small.

İyiyim. – I am good.


Plurals

Making words plural is somewhat easy in Turkish language. You will add -ler or -lar suffixes according to the rule of Vowel Harmony that we will touch upon later.

Let’s see some examples:

Avukat -Lawyer

Avukatlar -Lawyers

Doktor -Doctor

Doctors -Doktorlar

Polis -Policeman

Polisler -Policemen

Asker -Soldier

Askerler -Soldiers


Words you have learnt so far…

#


A

  • Arap – Arab
  • Avukat – Lawyer
  • Asker – Soldier
  • Alman – German
  • Amerikalı – American
  • Az – Few

B

  • Büyük – Big

C

Ç

  • Çirkin – Ugly
  • Çok – Very/Many

D

  • Doktor – Doctor

E

F

  • Fransız – French

G

  • Gazeteci – Journalist
  • Genç – Young
  • Güzel – Beautiful

H

  • Hızlı – Fast

I

İ

  • İtalyan – Italian
  • İş adamı – Businessman
  • İspanyol – Spanish
  • İngiliz – English
  • İyi – Good

J

K

  • Küçük – Small
  • Kötü – Bad

L

M

  • Memur – Public Officer
  • Mühendis – Engineer

N

O

Ö

  • Öğretmen – Teacher
  • Öğrenci – Student

P

  • Polis – Policeman

R

  • Rus – Russian

S

  • Suriyeli – Syrian
  • Sanatçı – Artist
  • Sıcak – Hot
  • Soğuk – Cold

Ş

T

  • Türk – Turkish

U

Ü

V

Y

  • Yeni – New
  • Yavaş – Slow
  • Yaşlı – Old
  • Yakışıklı – Handsome

Z